Future tense questions

The future tense ending is ‘a’ so if I want to say something like ‘I’ll phone you tomorrow’ is it as simple as 'ffonia i di ‘fory’? Also, how does the ending work with something like ‘cwpla’ which ends in ‘a’ anyway?



For all verbs there is the concept of a stem.

This can be the whole verb eg Darllen (to read) or it can be shorter eg gweld (to see) drops the ‘d’ eg wela I.

So to add an ending of any sort eg the past or the future, you add it to the stem.

Ffoni is the stem in this case your example is correct.

Cwpl is the stem in the second.

Rich :slight_smile:


And if the stem is cwpl the future becomes…? Cwpla again?

Or gorffenna i, at least it’s we can copy gofynna i from the challenges and be sure to be right! Reit? :wink:

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I guess even if a word like cwpla sounds the same the context it’s used in gives the intention.


Note that while some stems are obvious, others aren’t.

Some dictionaries give the stems. This online one does:


If you look up, for example “chwerthin” (“to laugh”), it gives:

chwerthin v. chwardd-

So in that case, as well as the ending disappearing, the “th” has changed to “dd”, and the “e” vowel has changed to an “a”.


Yes, what we have been calling the future endings here is also used for the present

Eg alla I ddim cofio beth wedest ti (I do not / am not able to understand what you said)

In some ways the endings are ‘non past’endings.

Rich :slight_smile:

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The Modern Welsh Dictionary has a good explanation on verb endings at the beginning and also gives the stems


Oh the Modern Welsh Dictionary is the only book I have, and still I forget to check it out for answers! :smiley:
Thanks @mikeellwood, @rich and @Tricia for the patience :wink:


But at least the only book you have is the right book… :wink: :+1: