Can someone tell me what the difference is with an example between using ‘erbyn hyn’ and nawr/rwan?
Dwi’n mynd i gael panad rwan… dylsai’r tegell wedi berwi erbyn hyn.
I’m going to have a cuppa now… the kettle should have boiled by now.
@siaronjames has already provided the answer, and this doesn’t add anything to it.
But how can I resist sharing what popped up in my mind when I read this topic title?
@siaronjames. That’s a lovely example thank you. The reason I ask is because in an advanced transcript a line reads:
Oedd hyd yn oed Caerdydd yn reit dawel i gymharu a fel mae Caerdydd erbyn hyn.
In my mind and following your logic I was expecting that to be nawr/rwan…?
Yes, that’s a subtle thing you get used to over time. Sometimes even in Welsh English people use “by now” when other Englishes might use a simple “now”. It usually signifies that the status of something has changed over an unspecified timescale.
“Where are you living by now?” - I know/suspect that you might not be living in the same place as you were last time we spoke about this.
It’s not something you need to worry about. It’ll come to you naturally, and in the mean time if you use nawr it’s unlikely people will be bothered or even notice.
Brilliant. Many thanks