So, I’ve learned that “Mi ges i” means “I got” or “I had” but then I also learned that “Roedd rhaid i mi” also means “I had.” When is it appropriate to use each phrase? Are they interchangeable? Thanks for any insight!
No, they’re not interchangeable. It’s English using the same words for two different meanings which causes the confusion!
Mi ges i = got/had in the sense of possession
e.g. I got a sandwich for lunch = mi ges i frechdan am ginio
I had a pretty dress = mi ges i ffrog bert
Whereas Roedd rhaid i mi = got/had in the sense of compulsion
e.g. I’ve got to go now = mae rhaid i mi fynd rwan
I had to leave early = roedd rhaid i mi adael yn gynnar
Thank you for the clarification. I was getting confused. It will take a lot of thought on my part, to slowly put this into practice when I’m trying to say something.
So, would these be correct?
I had toast for breakfast. = Mi ges i dost i frecwast
I had to go to the meeting = Roedd rhaid i mi fynd i’r cyfarfod.
I had to answer the question = Roedd rhaid i mi ateb y cwestiwn
Yep, spot on
Another tip to remembering which is which - mi ges i will be followed by a noun (because it’s something you possessed or recieved) but roedd rhaid i mi will be followed by a verb (because it’s an action you are compelled to do), so the noun or verb you want to use in the sentence will tell you which got/had to use
Ohhh. Very helpful! Thank you
One more question about “I had”
So, “I had to get up at 5 o’clock” would be “Roedd rhaid i mi godi am 5 o’r gloch”
and “I had to go to the meeting” would be “Roedd rhaid i mi fynd i’r cyfarfod”
Are those sentences correct?
Sorry. I also meant to ask,
What about a statement “I got up at 5 o’clock” rather than “I had to get up at 5 o’clock” or how about
“I got the turkey sandwich” or “I got the one that doesn’t work”
yes, spot on
I got up…
This would need the verb codi (this is ‘got’ being used in a different way to cael and rhaid)
You can use codais i…
or nes i godi…
I got the…
These would both use the verb cael
So you could use ces i…
or also nes i gael
One rule of thumb is to think how you’d say these ideas in English without using the word ‘got’ or ‘had’.
So, try replacing the gots with ‘forced to’ or ‘must’.
If you can replace the got with ‘forced to’ or ‘must’ and still make sense, then it’s ‘rhaid’. Otherwise, it’s ‘cael’, or another word like ‘codi’.
E.g. “I got up at 7” → “I was forced to up at 7” doesn’t make sense, so you need another word (here, rise = codi). Nes i godi…
I got a sandwich – I was forced to a sandwich… Again, this doesn’t make sense, but “I bought/ate…” would so you can use cael. “Ces i…”
But “I’ve got to go now” – “I must go now…” is fine, so you use rhaid. “Rhaid i mi fynd…”
This is very helpful, thank you!
Without treading on toes can I mention that I think the possession meaning of got/had is different and nothing to with cael.
Roedd gen i gawod = I had a shower (used to own one, possess).
Mi ges i gawod = I had a shower (I stood under the water and washed, experienced).
Mae gen i frechdan am ginio = I have a sandwich for dinner (I possess it).
Dwi’n cael brechdan am ginio = I am having a sandwich for dinner (I’m eating/experiencing it).
Yes, you’re right - I probably gave the wrong impression by using ‘possess’, ‘receive’ is a better word to use - it all depends on the subtle nuance of the ‘got’
Mi ges i frechdan am ginio - I got (obtained/received) a sandwich for lunch
one last thing - mi in front of things is pretty Gog i.e northern!! If you’re speaking Welsh in Pembs or probably anywhere in the South, you’re not going to hear that