Shwmae pawb!

Just started reading some Welsh and keep seeing cafodd being used for ‘was’ instead of oedd, I know there are differences between spoken Welsh and written Welsh but I assumed the written form of oedd was roedd? Does anyone have more information or an explanation on the term cafodd, initially when reading cafodd I thought it was the long form for he/she had?

Diolch in advance


Cafodd is the sort form for “he/she had” but there is also another construction which roughly maps to the English “was”

Cafodd ei eni yn Llundain - He was born in London ( literally ‘He had his birth in London.’).

Cafodd y llyfr ei gyhoeddi - The book was published (lit. ‘The book had its publishing.’)

I hope this helps!


Ahhh, great! Diolch am y’r ymateb! Dw I’n deall nawr :slight_smile: