Bod - and all its mysteries

I’ve got as far as the course 2 vocab units but am finding that I can’t get to the end of all the sentences because of “bod” for “that”. I’ve got used to some of the forms:

fy mod i, dy fod di… etc… to eu bod nhw

But I stall when I’ve got to do the negative forms. Could anyone summarise them for me? I think I’d find it helpful to see them all together so I can start internalising them.

I have the same problem with the past and future forms as well, but can’t remember the lessons where they all get introduced…

Any help appreciated…

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For many of them, you just replace “bod” with “nag”. This often stumped me (and still does sometimes!).
At the moment, I can’t think of any examples (in work mode at the moment and pushed for time!) but hopefully someone on here can (and possibly correct me if I’m wrong!)

Dw i’n gweld dy fod ti’n mynd
Dw i’n gweld nad wyt ti’n mynd
(= that you aren’t going)
…nad yw hi’n mynd
(= that she isn’t going)
Rinse and repeat.

Two big caveats:

  • I don’t know what’s taught in the Northern course.
  • The nad has always sounded much more like nag to me, and that’s how I pronounce it every single time. I’ve written the ‘correct’ nad here because it’s frankly been a bit of a devil for me cleaning up details with the negative forms as I’ve started to learn how to write properly.

Ydy Steve yn medru dod? Is Steve/Cat able to come?
Nac ydy, dw i ddim yn meddwl fod o…/bod hi…No, I don’t think that he/she, are.

Ydy’r plant yn medru dod?
Nac ydyn, dw i ddim yn meddwl bod nhw

Dach chi’n medru dod?
Nac ydan, dw I ddim yn meddwl bod ni

That’s northern of course.

Thanks all, that makes good sense, and actually looks easier in southern than I expected. It looks even easier in the northern - wish I’d chosen that one! :frowning:

Could anyone help me with the past tense forms? (for southern).

-es i (me)
-est ti (you – informal singular)
-odd e/hi (him/her)
-on ni (we)
-och (you – formal plural)
-on nhw (they)

  • weles I
  • welest ti
  • welodd fe/fi…

Just to be clear, I think there’s a couple of subtly different things going on in the responses so far.

If you want to say (as dinas explains): I don’t think he is coming - dw i ddim yn meddwl ei fod e’n dod

(i.e. it’s the first part of the sentence that is negative NOT the “bod” part)

If you want to say something like: I know that he is not coming - dw i’n gwybod nad yw e’n dod

(here the 2nd part is negative not the first). I haven’t followed the SSIW course so I’m not sure which of the several possible ways to do this that you’ve been taught. Although I’m guessing from Diane’s answer it’s something similar to what I’ve written above with the subtle difference that (as is common in the south) the “nad” is pronounced “nag”.
Giving the following examples:

dw i’n gwybod nag yw e/hi’n dod /// nag oedd e/hi’n dod /// na fydd e/hi’n dod
nag wyt ti’n dod /// nag o’t ti’n dod /// na fyddi di’n dod
nag ych chi’n dod /// nag o’ch chi’n dod /// na fyddwch chi’n dod
nag yn nhw’n dod /// nag o’n nhw’n dod /// na fyddan nhw’n dod
nag yn ni’n dod /// nag o’n ni’n dod /// na fyddwn ni’n dod

Yes, I think I was unhelpfully fuzzy in my question. But, as ever, I’ve learnt something from every answer. Thanks.

As someone following the Northern course, all of this business with nad/nag is news to me! We have been using ddim:

Dw i’n gwybod fod o ddim yn mynd - I know that he’s not going

Am I missing something here?


No, it’s also quite common in the south to use bod with ddim giving your above example (with e instead of o). it’s just that it’s also common in the south to use the nad/nag and strictly speaking if you were writing something slightly formal you’d probably use nad. But, as your taught in the northern course, the bod + ddim is probably the most common way of saying this type of thing overall when speaking.

You’ve missed an extra feature of the southern course, that’s come about because I can’t bring myself to say “bod e ddim” etc - it’s just totally unnatural to me.

But don;t misunderstand.- bod e ddim etc is common enough, and perfectly acceptable in speech, it’s just that I’ve never used it as a general pattern.

Diolch Dai ac Iestyn! :slight_smile: